Monday, October 6, 2014

Tolkien's characters from A to Z

**Note** I'm using my book The Languages of Tolkien's Middle-earth by Ruth S. Noel

Adanedhel = 'Elf Man'. A name of Turin
Adrahil = A prince of Dol Amroth, father of Imrahil
Aegnor = 'Fell Fire'. A son of Finarfin
Aerandir = 'Sea Wanderer'. A companion of Earendil
Aerin = A woman who aided Morwen
Agarwaen = 'Blood-stained'. A name of Turin
Aldamir = The twenty-second King of Gondor
Aldaron = 'Forester'. '(Lord) of Trees'. A name of Orome
Altariel = 'Maiden Crowned with a Radiant Garland'. The Quenya form of the name Galadriel, referring to her hair.
Amandil = 'Lover of Aman'. The father of Elendil.
Amarie = (Of the Home). An Elf-woman.
Amlaith = of Fornost, second King of Arthedain.
Amras = A son of Feanor.
Amrod = A son of Feanor.
Amroth = An Elven King of Lorien who gave his name to Cerin Amroth and Dol Amroth.
Anardil = (Lover of the Sun). The son of Earendil and first King of Gondor.
Anfauglir = 'Jaws of Thirst'. A name of the wolf Carcharth.
Angbor = (Iron Fist). Lord of Lamedon.
Angrim = (Iron-host) A man, father of Gorlim.
Angrod = (Iron Champion) A son of Finarfin.
Annael =  (Star-gift, Elf-gift). The Elf who adopted Tuor.
Annatar = 'Lord of Gifts'. A name Sauron gave himself.
Ar-Adunakhor = 'Lord of the West'. The nineteenth King of Numenor.
Ar-Feiniel = A name of Aredhel, sister of Turgon.
Ar-Gimilzor = The twenty-second King of Numenor.
Ar-Inziladun = The twenty-third King of Numenor.
Ar- Pharazon = 'The Golden'. The twenty-fourth and last King of Numenor.
Ar-Sakalthor = The twenty-first King of Numenor.
Ar-Zimrathon = The twentieth King of Numenor.
Aradan = The Elvish name of Malach, a mortal.
Arador = (Lord of the Land). The fifteenth Chieftain of the Dunedain.
Araglas = (Royal Leaf). The sixth chieftain of the Dunedain.
Aragorn I = (Lord of the Tree). The fifth chieftain of the Dunedain.
Aragorn II = (Lord of the Tree). Strider, the King of the reunited Kingdoms or Arnor and Gondor.
Aragost = (Lord of the Fortress). The eighteenth Chieftain of the Dunedain.
Arahad I = The seventh Chieftain of the Dunedain.
Arahad II = The tenth Chieftain of the Dunedain.
Arahael = The second Cheiftain of the Dunedain.
Aranarth = (King of the Realm). = The first Chieftain of the Dunedain.
Aranel = (King of Elves). A name of Dior.
Arantar = (King of Lords). The sixth King of Arnor.
Aranuir = The third Chieftain of the Dunedain.
Aranwe = (King). An Elf of Gondolin.
Araphant = The fourteenth King of Arthedain.
Araphor = The ninth King of Arthedain.
Arassuil = The eleventh Chieftain of the Dunedain.
Aratan = (Royal Man). A son of Isildiur.
Aratar =  'The Exalted'. The eight most powerful of the Valar.
Arathorn I =  (Tree of All Lords). The twelfth Chieftain of the Dunedain.
Arathorn II = (Tree of All Lords). The sixteenth Chieftain of the Dunedain.
Araval = (Lord of Power). The thirteenth King of Arthedain.
Aravir = The fourth Chieftain of the Dunedain.
Aravorn = (Black Lord). The ninth Chieftain of the Dunedian.
Araw = (Trumpet). A name of Orome, the Huntsman of the Valar.
Arciryas = (Noble Ship). The brother of King Narmacil II of Gondor.
Aredhel = 'Noble Elf'. The sister of Turgon.
Argeleb I = (Silver King). The seventh King of Arthedain.
Argeleb II = (Silver King). The tenth King of Arthedain.
Argonui = (Noble Commander). The thirteenth Chieftain of the Dunedain.
Arien = (Maiden of Sunlight). The Maia who sails the Sun.
Arminas = (Royal Tower). An Elf.
Artsmir = (Noble Jewel). The son of Ondoher of Gondor.
Arthad = A companion of Barahir.
Arvedui = 'Last King'. The fifteenth and last King of Arthedain
Arvegil = (Royal Star). The eleventh King of Arthedain.
Arveleg I = (Mighty King). The eighth King of Arthedain.
Arveleg II = (Mighty King). The twelfth King of Arthedain.
Arwen Undomiel = (Royal Maiden, Daughter of Twilight). "Evenstar', daughter of Elrond.
Asfaloth = Glorfindel's white horse.
Astaldo = 'The Valiant'. A name for Tulkas, a Vala.
Atanatar = (Father of Men). The ninth King of Gondor.
Atanatar Alcarin = (Glorious Father of Men). 'The Glorious'. The fifteenth King of Gondor.
Aule = The Smith of the Valar.
Azaghal = The Dwarf-lord of Belegost.

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Historical Recipes in 1904 (American Girls Pastime: Samantha)

(I modified these recipes from Samantha's Cook Book)


                                                        *** Cream of Carrot Soup***


1 pound carrots
2 cups chicken broth
2 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon cayenne pepper
1 cup half-and-half

6 servings

1. Peel the carrots, then rinse them under cold water. Cut the carrots into 1/2-inch slices. Put the sliced carrots into the 2-quart saucepan. Add the chicken broth. Cook the carrots and broth over medium-high heat. When the broth begins to boil, turn the heat down to medium low. Cover the saucepan. Cook the carrots for 20 minutes or until they are very soft and break apart when piereced with the fork.

2. Place the colander in the large bowl. Pour the broth and carrots in the colander, catching the carrots in the colander. Save the broth. Put the drained carrots back into the 2-quart saucepan. Mash them until they are very smooth. Set the pan aside. In the 3-quart saucepan, melt the butter over medium heat, stirring constantly.

3. Add the mashed carrots, salt, and cayenne pepper. stir to mix them together. Slowly stir in the broth. Turn the heat up to medium high and cook for 10 minutes. Stir often. Add the half-and-half. Heat the soup slowly, stirring constantly. Don't let the soup boil. When it's done to your liking, serve it warm.

                                       ***Roasted Beef Tenderloin***
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon pepper
2-pound trimmed beef tenderloin, tied for baking
Fresh parsley
1 lemon

6 servings

1. Preheat the oven to 40. Sprinkle the salt and pepper evenly over the meat on all sides. Then put the meat into the pan. Put it on the middle oven rack. Bake 30 minutes for medium-rare meat, 35 minutes for medium. Remove the pan from the oven and cover the meat with foil. Let it "rest" for 15 minutes.

2. While the meat rests, wash the fresh parsley under cold water. Dry it with paper towels. Pull sprigs of parsley off the stems. Place them onto the serving platter to make a "bed" for the meat. cut the lemon into slices. Arrange them on the platter. Just before serving, uncover the meat. Cut the string. Cut the meat into 1-inch slices, and set them on the platter.

                                                        ***Corn Oysters***


2 cups frozen corn kernels
1/4 cup milk
1/3 cup flour
1 egg
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon pepper
2 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons vegetable oil

16 corn oysters

1. Put the frozen corn into the colander. Rinse it with cold water until the ice crystals disappear. Pour the corn into the bowl. Stir in the milk, flour, egg, salt, and pepper. Lay paper towels on top of the platter. Then set it aside. Place the skillet over medium-high heat. Add the butter and oil.

2. Use the wooden spoon to spread the melted butter and oil evenly in the skillet. Then out 6 spoonfuls of the corn mixture into the skillet. Let the corn oysters cook for 2 to 3 minutes, or until the bottoms are golden brown. Use the spatula to turn the corn oysters gently.

3. Cook them for 2 to 3 minutes more, or until both sides are golden brown. Drain the corn oysters on the covered with paper towels. Cover the platter with foil to keep them warm. Continue frying corn oysters in the same way until the corn mixture is gone. You should have about 16 corn oysters. Remove the foil and paper towels from the platter and serve the corn oysters hot.



4 tablespoons tarragon vinegar
1 tablespoon water
1 teaspoon Dijon-style mustard
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon sugar
1/4 teaspoon pepper
1/2 cup vegetable or olive oil

6 servings

1. Put the vinegar, water, mustard, salt, sugar, and pepper into a serving jar. Screw the lid on the jar tightly. Shake it to blend the ingredients. Add the oil. Put the lid back on the jar, and shake it again, hard enough to mix the oil with all the other ingredients. Serve onto any kind of salad.

Historical Recipes in 1904 (American Girls Pastime: Samantha)

(I modified these recipes from Samantha's Cook Book)


                                               ***Strawberries with Cream***


3 cups fresh strawberries
1 pint heavy cream
1/2 cup sugar

6 servings

1. Use the paring knife to remove the stem and leaves from each strawberry. Put the strawberries into the colander and rinse them well under cold water.

2. Cut any large strawberries into bite-size pieces. Put the strawberries into the serving bowl. Add sugar and cream to your liking.

                                                         *** Ham Slice***


2-pound fully cooked ham slice
2 tablespoons water

6 servings

1. Place the ham slice on the cutting board. Trim away any fat and cut the ham slice into serving size pieces.  Measure the water into the skillet. Turn the heat to medium high. Let the water get warm.

2. Put the ham pieces into the skillet and cook them about 3 minutes. Turn over the pieces with a fork. Cook them over for 3 more minutes. Then serve them hot.

                                                     *** Cheese Omelet***


6 eggs
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon pepper
4 tablespoons water
2 tablespoons butter
1/2 cup grated cheese

6 servings

1. Crack the eggs into the mixing bowl. Use the fork to beat the eggs until they are well mixed. Add the slat, pepper and water. Continue beating the mixture with the fork until it is foamy.

2. Melt the butter in the skillet over medium-high heat until it is bubbly. Pour the egg mixture into the skillet. As the eggs cook, push them gently toward the middle with a spatula. Tilt the pan slightly so the uncooked eggs move to the outside.

3. When the bottom of the omelet is lightly browned and the eggs are firm, sprinkle the grated cheese over half of the omelet. Lift and fold the other half of the omelet over the cheese. Lower the heat to medium low and allow the omelet to cook until the cheese is fully melted, about 2 to 3 minutes. Serve with love.

                                                   *** Saratoga Potatoes***


4 large potatoes
Cold water
8 ice cubes
2 cups shortening

6 servings

1. Peel the potatoes. Put cold water into the bowl until it is half full. Then add the ice cubes. Rub the potatoes over the wide slicer on the grater to cut them into very, thin, round slices. As the potatoes are sliced, put them into the bowl of ice water to remove some of the starch.

2. Drain a handful of potato slices on the paper towels. Pat the tops with more towels. Drying the potatoes keeps the shortening from splattering when you put them into the skillet. Add shortening to the skillet. Melt the shortening over medium-high heat until it is very hot.

3. Use a slotted spoon or skimmer to put 1 potato slice into the shortening to test it. The shortening should bubble around the potato. It the potato turns brown quickly, the shortening is too hot...turn down the heat a little. Carefully move the rest of the dried slices from the paper towels into the hot shortening.

4. As the potatoes cook, separate any slices that stick together. Fry the potatoes for 4 to 5 minutes, or until they turn a light golden color. Then remove them from the skillet. Put them into the pie pan and shake salt lightly over them. Then fry the rest of the potatoes. Enjoy!

                                                           *** Blueberry Muffins***


Shortening to grease muffin pan
I cup fresh blueberries
3 tablespoons shortening
3 tablespoons sugar
1 egg
1 cup milk
1 3/4 cups flour
3 teaspoons baking powder
3/4 teaspoon salt
Butter and jam

12 muffins

1. Preheat the oven to 400. Use shortening to lightly grease each muffin cup. Put the blueberries into the strainer, and. Then rinse them under cold running water. Drain them on paper towels. Measure 3 tablespoons of shortening into the mixing bowl. Slowly stir the sugar into the shortening until the mixture is light and fluffy.

2. Crack the egg into the bowl. Beat the mixture well. Stir in the milk and mix well. Measure the flour, baking powder, and salt into the sifter. Sift them into the mixing bowl Stir gently, just enough to moisten the flour mixture. Carefully stir the blueberries into the mixture.

3. Fill each muffin cup 2/3 full. Bake the muffins on the middle oven rack for 20 to 25 minutes. Insert a toothpick into 1 of the muffins. If it comes out clean, the muffins are done. Once the muffins are done, set them on the rack to cool, then serve with butter and jam.

Shakespeare Quotations

O beware of jealousy:
It is the green-eyed monster, which does mock
The meat it feeds on.

Thursday, July 17, 2014

Bon Jour! France

Join me this week as I participate in the Europe: Simply Irresistible Party at Castles, Crowns, and Cottages. Lots of blogs are linked up with their Europe-themed posts. Make sure to check out the list for more!

My choice in Europe for this post is France.
I never really know why I love France, but everyone gets that at times.
My first love of France is the Eiffel Tower.

The Eiffel Tower was built in 1889, by Alexandre Eiffel, for the World's Fair. It is located in Paris. It's structure is beautifully built.

Next, the language of France; le langue de France.
The language is in the group of the Romantic Languages, including Spanish and Italian. The language was developed from Latin, created by Julius Caesar in the 50's B.C. He called it Gaulish, but later on in the 700's it was called French. Many English words come from the French language, such as abandon, absence and accident.

Next in line is the French food.

The cooking of France was considered an art, and still is. Their haute cuisine (gourmet cooking) is known all throughout the world. The famous crepes, quiche and croissant is a delicacy to the French menu.

Last, I want to introduce the Founding Father of Modern Chemistry, who named Oxygen...Antoine Lavoisier.

In each country, everyone has a person they admire. Mine is Lavoisier.
Not only does he come from France, but he is an amazing scientist and created many inventions that we still use today.
To learn more about Lavoisier, visit my biographical post on him:

Tuesday, July 15, 2014

Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier: The Father of Modern Chemistry

Lavoisier was born on Aug. 26, 1743, in Paris, France, about the time the French and Indian War started.
He was born into a wealthy family of French society, with a father in the Parliament of Paris, as an attorney.
After Lavoisier's mother's sudden death, he inherited a large fortune at the age of 5, and at the age of 11, he attended the College des Quatre-Nations (the College of Four Nations), in Paris.
He studied chemistry, botany, astronomy, and mathematics.
Soon later, he entered the School of Law, and at the age of 20, in 1763, he received his bachelor's degree, and the next year, his licentiate.
In 1771, Lavoisier, at 28, married a wealthy 13 year-old girl named Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, who, later on, wrote down notes and translated English documents to Lavoisier, including Kirwen's "Essay on Phlogiston", and Priestly's research.
One of Lavoisier's inventions that amazed me was the Metric system, which is a group of units that is used to make any kind of measurement, which is still used today.
Many of Lavoisier's experiments includes:
Combustion studies
Gunpowder commissions
Chemical nomenclature
and the Respiratio physiology

A dear friend, Pierre Simon Laplace, helped Lavoisier with many of these experiments.
One thing that interested me was that Lavoisier named two elements in our periodic tables: Hydrogen and *Oxygen*.
The name Oxygen means "acid producer".
Lavoisier took the Greek words "oxys" (meaning "acid" or "sharp") and "gignomei" (meaning "produce") and formed "oxygen".
He and many other chemists found that this substance is part of several acids.
Lavoisier incorrectly believed that oxygen was needed to make all acids.
In 1793, Lavoisier was forced to move from his house and laboratory at the time of the French Revolution, having been found a partner in a firm that collected many taxes for the government at the time of the Revolution.
Lavoisier and many other tax collectors were brought on trial on May 8, 1794.
The judge believed that (in French) "La Repulique na pas besion de seavants ne de chimists; le cours de la justice ne peute etre suspendu."
(Translation) "The Republic needs neither scientists nor chemists; the course of justice cannot be delayed."
Lavoisier, at 50, was guillotined that day.     
To this day, Lavoisier's name is all over France and America.  
One of the main "lycees" (high schools) and a street in France were named after him. His name is one of the 72 names of eminent French scientists, engineers and mathematicians inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.
Lavoisier inspired me to study science and chemistry, and has helped me to know more about the science in life.

*Oxygen makes about a fifth of the air's volume. It is found in the earth's crust and in water.
100 lb. of the earth's crust contains 49 lb. of oxygen.
100 lb. of water contains 89 lb. of oxygen.
This kind of oxygen is not pure.
Almost half of the weight in most rocks and minerals is oxygen.
Oxygen has an atomic number of 8, and an atomic weight of 15.9994.
It will only liquefy up to 118.8 C.*

Monday, April 21, 2014

Callie's Contest of Courage by Jan May Book Review

This review copy was given to me by Jan May, the author of, "Callie's Contest of Courage." All opinions are honest and are my own.

Book Description: "Eleven-year-old Callie Fleming is a passionate animal lover!
She's been waiting all year to enter photos in the I Love Nature Photo Contest. Her dad, who is the coolest dad in the world, is an award winning photographer and Marine Corps Reserves Sergeant. She is counting on his help to win. But when her father is untimely deployed overseas and becomes strangely silent to her emails, she finds her whole world crashing down on her. Can she muster up the courage to step out on a journey that whisks her away from all the things she loves?"

                                                    My Review

This book is an amazing story about an eleven-year-old girl named Callie Fleming, and how she finds courage to pray for her father, who is an award winning photographer and a Marine Corps Reserves Sergeant.
When her father becomes mysteriously silent to her emails, she begins to worry.
Will she ever see her father again?
It is an amazing story about faith and trust in God.
I enjoyed this story for many reasons: the prayers the scripture verses, the contests and Callie's prayer through a storm.
This book took me on an excellent journey, and I believe girls seven to eleven will quite enjoy this adventure, and many more New Millennium Girl books to come.

Tuesday, April 1, 2014

Shakespeare Quotations


Could great men thunder
As Jove himself does, Jove would ne'er be quiet,
For every pelting, petty officer
Would use his heaven for thunder--
Merciful heaven!
Thou rather, with thy sharp and sulohurous  bolt,
Splitt'st the unwedgeable and gnarled oak,
Than the soft myrtle!-- O, but man, proud man!
Drest in a little brief authority--
Most ignorant of what he's most assured,
His glassy essence,--like an angry ape,
Plays such fantastic tricks before high heaven,
As make the angles weep.

                                                                                                     Measure for Measure--II.2.

Sunday, March 30, 2014

Shakespeare Quotations


My May of life
Is fallen into the sear, the yellow leaf:
And that which should accompany old age,
As honor, love, obedience, troops of friends,
I must not look to have; but, in their stead,
Curses not loud, but deep, mouth-honor, breath,
                                      Which the poor heart would feign deny, but dare not.


Friday, March 28, 2014

Shakespeare Quotations


They that have the voice of lions, and the act of hares, are
they not monsters?

                                                                                                           Troilus and Cressida--III.2.

Friday, March 7, 2014

Shakespeare Quotations


It will come to pass,
That every braggart shall be found an ass.   

                                                                      Much Ado About Nothing--IV.1.

Wednesday, February 12, 2014

Shakespeare Quotations


The hand, that hath made you fair, hath made you good:
the goodness, that is cheap in beauty, makes beauty brief in
goodness; but grace, being the soul of your complexion,
                                                  should keep the body of it ever fair.

                                                                                                            Measure for Measure--III.1.

Tuesday, February 11, 2014

Shakespeare quotations

Advice to a Son leaving Home             

  Give thy thoughts no tongue,
Nor any unproportioned thought his act
Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar.
The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried
Grapple them to thy soul with hooks of steel;
But do not dull thy palm with entertainment
Of each new-hatched, unfledged comrade. Beware
Of entrance to a quarrel: but, being in,
Bear it, that the opposer may beware of thee.
Give every man thine ear, but few thy voice:
Take each man's censure, but reserve thy judgment.
Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy,
But not expressed in fancy: rich, not gaudy:
For the apparel oft proclaims the man;
And they in France, of the best rank and station,
Are most select and generous, chief in that.
Neither a borrower, nor a lender be:
For loan oft loses both itself and friend;
And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.
This above all.- To thine ownself be true;
And it must follow, as the night the day,
                              Thou canst not then be false to any man.

                                                                                                                                    Hamlet- I.3.

Monday, February 10, 2014

Historical Favorite Foods in America: 1777 (American Girl Felicity)

Favorite Foods                                                        

(From  Felicity's Cook Book. I modified these recipes )

                                                               Beefsteak Pie


Two pastry piecrusts for 9-inch pie pan
1-to-2 pound beef rump roast
Salt and pepper
1 tablespoon cooking oil
2 tablespoons flour
4 tablespoons water
2 cups beef broth
1 teaspoon dried parsley
1/8 teaspoon marjoram
1/8 savory
1/8 thyme
2 tablespoons butter

1. Line the bottom of the pie pan with 1 of the piecrusts. Slice the rump roast into small, then steaks about 1/4 inch thick. Put the steaks on a cutting board and pound them with a rolling pin until they are tender. Sprinkle the steaks with salt and pepper.

2.  Heat the cooking oil in the skillet over medium heat. Put the steaks into the skillet and turn them over several times to brown them on both sides. Put the steaks into the pie pan, and set it aside. Preheat the oven to 400. Measure the flour and water into the bowl and stir with the fork to make a smooth paste.

3. Measure the beef broth into the skillet and heat in until it boils. To make a gravy, stir the flour paste slowly into the broth with a wooden spoon. When the gravy is thick, turn down the heat and let the gravy simmer for 3 minutes.

4. Sprinkle salt and pepper over the gravy and stir. Then, pour the gravy over the steaks in the pie pan. Sprinkle parsley, marjoram, savory and thyme over the steaks and gravy. Cut the butter into small pieces and dot the top of the pie with butter.

5. Cover the pie with the other piecrust. Press the edges of the bottom and top crusts together to seal them. Cut six small slits in the top of the piecrust. (If you wish, you can use cookie cutters to make a design on the top piecrust for decoration.) Bake the pie for 50 minutes, or until the crust is golden brown.

                                                    Baked Pumpkin Pudding


4 eggs

1-pound can of pumpkin
1 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon ginger
1/4 teaspoon allspice
1/2 cup molasses
1 cup milk
Butter or shortening to grease casserole dish

1. Preheat the oven to 350. Crack the eggs into the large mixing bowl. Beat them with the fork until they are lightly yellow. Add the canned pumpkin to the eggs and mix well with the wooden spoon. Measure the cinnamon, ginger and allspice into the mixing bowl. Add the molasses and milk. Stir well.

2. Grease the casserole dish with butter or shortening. Pour the pumpkin mixture into the casserole dish. Bake the pudding for 1 hour.

                                                              Raspberry Flummery


3 cups raspberries
3/4 cup cold water
1 cup sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt
6 tablespoons cornstarch

1. Put the raspberries into the colander and rinse them under cold running water. Measure the water into the saucepan. Add the berries. Turn the heat to medium high. Cover the saucepan and cook the berries about 10 minutes, or until they are soft. Stir them once or twice while they cook.

2. While the berries are cooking, measure the sugar, salt and cornstarch into the bowl and stir them with a fork. Slowly add the sugar mixture to the cooked berries and stir. Turn the heat to low and cook the mixture for another 10 minutes, or until it becomes thick. Chill the flummery in the refrigerator.

                                                              Almond Tarts



3/4 cups flour
6 tablespoons butter
1 egg
1 tablespoon cream
Extra flour for rolling out dough


1/2 cup butter
1 lemon
1 cup ground almonds
1 tablespoon orange juice
3 eggs
1/2 cup sugar

1. To make the pastry dough, measure the flour and butter into the medium mixing bowl. Use the pastry cutter or fork to blend them until the mixture is crumbly. Crack the eggs into the bowl. Add the cream and stir to form a smooth dough. Chill the pastry dough for 15 to 30 minutes in the refrigerator. While the dough is chilling, preheat the oven to 325.

2. To make the filling, melt the butter in the saucepan over low heat. Grate the outer, yellow part of the lemon peel. Measure 1 tablespoon of grated lemon peel into the large mixing bowl. Add the melted butter, ground almonds, orange juice, eggs and sugar. Mix well, then set the bowl aside. Remove the pastry dough from the refrigerator. Divide it into 12 pieces. Shape each piece into a ball.

3. On a floured cutting board, roll out each ball into a thin circle, about 1/4 inch thick. Fit each circle into a cup in the muffin pan. Pat the sides to make them fit like a tiny pie crust. Put 2 tablespoons of filling into each muffin cup. Divide any remaining filling evenly among the cups. Bake the almond tarts for 40 minutes, or until a knife inserted in the center comes out clean.

                                                               Queen Cakes


Shortening or butter to grease pan
Flour to coat greased pan
1/2 cup butter, softened
1/2 cup sugar
2 eggs
2 tablespoons rose water
1/4 teaspoon mace
1/4 salt
1 cup flour
1 tablespoon flour
1/4 cup currants

1. Preheat the oven to 325. Grease the muffin pan with shortening or butter. Then sprinkle flour over each muffin cup. Tap the pan so the flour coats each cup completely. Put the softened butter into the mixing bowl and add the sugar. Press the butter and sugar together against the side of the bowl until they are creamy. Crack the eggs into the mixing bowl 1 at a time. Beat the mixture after adding each egg.

2. Add the rose water, mace, and salt. Beat well. Add 1 cup of flour to the mixture, 1/4 cup at a time. Each time you add flour, beat the mixture until you have a smooth batter. Put 1 tablespoon of flour into the small bowl. Add the currants and stir to coat them with flour. Then stir the currants into the batter. Spoon 1 tablespoon of batter into each muffin cup. Divide any remaining batter evenly among the cups. Bake the queen cakes for 40 minutes, or until they are golden brown.

                                                                Spiced Nuts


Shortening or butter to grease cookie sheets
1 cup sugar
4 tablespoons cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon nutmeg
2 eggs
1 cup pecans
1 cup almonds

1. Preheat the oven to 300. Grease the cookie sheets with shortening or butter. Measure the sugar, cinnamon, and nutmeg into 1 of the small bowls and mix them. Separate the egg whites into the other small bowl, and beat them with the fork. Then stir a few nuts into the egg whites. Take the nuts and roll them into the sugar mixture, and place them on the cookie sheets.

2. Prepare the rest of the nuts in the same way. Bake the spiced nuts for 20 minutes. Let them cool, and then serve them in a nut or candy dish

Historical Dinners in America: 1777 (American Girl Felicity)

( From Felicity's Cook Book. I modified these recipes.)


                                                         Chicken Pudding


2 tablespoons butter
2 pounds boneless, skinless chicken breasts
2 cups water
1 teaspoon salt
Shortening or butter to grease casserole dish
1 1/2 cups flour
1 teaspoon salt
1 1/2 teaspoons baking soda
3 tablespoons butter
3 eggs
1 1/2 cups milk

1. Melt 2 tablespoons of butter in the skillet over medium heat. Add the chicken breasts to the skillet. Turn the pieces with tongs until they are browned on both sides. Measure the water and 1 teaspoon of salt into the skillet. When the water boils, turn down the heat until the water simmers. Cover the skillet and cook the chicken for 1/2 hour. Grease the casserole dish with shortening or butter. Use tongs to put the cooked chicken breasts into the casserole. Preheat the oven to 375.

2. To make the batter for the chicken pudding, put the flour, salt, and baking soda in the small mixing bowl and stir them until they are well blended. Melt 3 tablespoons of batter in the small saucepan over low heat. Crack the eggs into the large mixing bowl and beat them together with the milk. Stir the melted butter into the eggs and milk. Add the flour mixture to the liquid mixture. Beat this batter until it is smooth. Pour the batter over the chicken breasts in the casserole dish. Bake the chicken pudding for about 40 minutes, until the batter puffs up and turns golden brown.


                                                                      Veal Balls


1 pound ground veal
A few sprigs of fresh parsley
1 tablespoon minced onion
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon thyme
1/8 teaspoon pepper
1/8 teaspoon ground cloves
1 egg
2 tablespoons butter

1. Put the ground veal into the mixing bowl. Wash the parsley and pull off several leaves and cut them into small pieces. Add the parsley, minced onion, salt, thyme, pepper, and ground cloves to the veal. Crack the egg into the mixing bowl. Mix all the ingredients with washed hands, or use a wooden spoon. Shape the meat mixture into 1-inch balls (about 24) and put them on a plate.

2. Melt the butter in the skillet over medium-low heat. Tilt the skillet to coat the bottom of the pan evenly with butter. Use the wooden spoon to move the veal balls from the plate to the skillet.
Cook the veal balls for 30 minutes. Stir them several times while they cook to brown the meat on all sides, and when done, move them to a serving plate.


                                                  Sweet Potatoes and Apples


5 sweet potatoes
3 large apples
Shortening or butter to grease casserole dish
2 tablespoons butter
3/4 cup maple syrup

1. Preheat the oven to 350. Wash the sweet potatoes and pierce them several times with a fork. Put them on the cookie sheet and bake them on the center oven rack for about 1 hour, or until a fork pierces them easily.Once the potatoes are done, remove them from the oven and let them cool. Cut each apple into 4 sections.  Remove the core from each section and cut off the skin. Then cut the apple sections into thin slices.

2. Use the paring knife to pull the skins off the cooked sweet potatoes. Cut the potatoes into 1/2-in slices. Grease the casserole dish with shortening or butter. Use the half of the sweet potato slices to cover the bottom of the casserole. Put half the apple slices on top of the potatoes.
 Use the rest of the sweet potatoes to make the next layer. Then add the rest of the apples. Cut the 2 tablespoons of butter into small pieces and place them on top of the apples. Pour the maple syrup over the top.  Cover the casserole and bake the sweet potatoes and apples in the oven for 30 minutes.

                                                            Sally Lunn Bread


3/4 cup milk
1/4 cup warm water
1 package active dry yeast
6 tablespoons butter, softened
3 tablespoons sugar
2 eggs
3 cups flour
1 1/4 teaspoons salt
Shortening or butter to grease the pan

1. Measure the milk into the small saucepan and warm it over medium-low heat. Measure the warm water into the small bowl, then add the yeast and stir. Then stir in the warm milk. Measure the butter and sugar into the large mixing bowl. Stir them until they are creamy.
 Crack 1 egg into the large mixing bowl and beat the mixture. Add the second egg and beat the mixture again. Stir the flour and salt together in the medium mixing bowl.
 Stir about 1 cup of the flour mixture into the butter and sugar mixture. Then stir in about 1/3 of the yeast mixture. Add more flour and beat the mixture. Then add more yeast and beat the mixture again. Continue adding yeast and flour in this way, beating the batter until it is smooth.

2. Cover the large mixing bowl with plastic wrap and a clean towel and let the batter rise in a warm place for 1 hour. When the batter has doubled in size, remove the coverings. Stir the batter quickly to take out the air. Grease the tube pan or round casserole dish with shortening or butter. Pour the batter into the baking pan. Cover it again and let it rise for 30 minutes, or until it has doubled again in size. Preheat the oven to 350 while the batter rises.
 Remove the coverings and bake the bread on the center oven rack for 40 to 45 minutes, or until the top is golden-yellow.

                                                                   Green Beans


1 pound fresh green beans
1/2 cup cold water
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon butter
Salt and pepper
1/4 cup heavy cream

1. Put the beans into the colander and wash them good. Snap both ends of the beans. 

2. Put the water and 1/2 teaspoon salt into the saucepan. Heat the water over medium-high until it boils. Put the beans into the water. Cover the saucepan and cook the beans for 5 minutes. Pour the beans and water into the colander and drain them. Once the water has drained off, put the beans back into the saucepan.

3. Add the butter. Sprinkle on salt and pepper. Add the ream and stir gently to coat the beans well.

                                                      Whipped Syllabub


2 cups heavy whipping cream
2 lemons
1 orange
1/2 cup sugar
1/4 cup sparkling white grape juice

1. Measure the whipping cream into the large mixing bowl and beat it  until it is thick. Set the bowl aside. Cut the lemons and orange in half. Set the juicer over the small mixing bowl so the edges fit tightly.

2. Squeeze the juice out of the lemons and orange. Add the sugar and grape juice to the lemon and orange juice. Stir until blended. Pour the juice into the whipped cream. Stir just enough to blend the juices and cream. The syllabub should be thick and frothy.

Saturday, February 8, 2014

Historical Breakfast of America: 1777 (American Girl Felicity)

(Recipes from Felicity's Cook Book. I modified these recipes.)


                                                          Apple Butter


3 cups sweet, apple cider
2 pounds apples (about 6 large apples. Granny Smiths are the best)
1/4 cup honey
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon ground cloves
1/4 teaspoon allspice

1. Measure the cider into the cooking pot. Cook the cider over medium heat until it boils. Let the cider boil for 15 minutes. While the cider boils cut each apple into 4 sections.  Remove the core from each section and cut off the skin. Then cut the apple sections into smaller pieces.  Add the apples to the boiling cider.  Cover the cooking pot. Cook the apples over very low heat until they are tender, about 1 hour. Stir the apples often while they cook.

2. Turn off the heat and remove the lid from the pot. Use the potato masher to mash the apples.  Stir in the honey, cinnamon, cloves and allspice. Turn the heat to low. Cook the apple mixture uncovered for about 30 minutes, or until it thickens. Stir often.  Turn off the heat and let the apple butter cool for 15 minutes in the pot.  Serve on any kind of bread, or store in jars.



1 cup water
2 tablespoons butter
1 cup yellow cornmeal
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon sugar
1/2 teaspoon milk
Butter to grease skillet

1. Heat the water and butter in the saucepan over medium-high heat until they boil.  While the water and butter are boiling, put the cornmeal, salt and sugar into the mixing bowl.  Pour the boiling water and butter into the mixing bowl. Add the milk and stir the batter until it is mixed well.  Use paper towels to grease the skillet with butter. Then heat the skillet over medium-low heat.

2. Drop 6 spoonfuls of batter into the skillet. Let the cakes cook about 5 minutes, until they are golden brown.  Turn the cakes over. Let the other side of each cake cook for another 5 minutes.  Move the cakes from the skillet to an ovenproof plate. Keep them warm in a 200 oven.  Drop a spoonful of butter into the hot skillet and let it melt. Tilt the pan to coat the bottom of the skillet evenly with melted butter.  Cook the rest of the johnnycakes.

(This would be a great way to use the apple butter)

                                                                 Breakfast Puffs


Shortening or butter to grease muffin pan
1 tablespoon butter
2 eggs
1 cup milk
1 cup flour
1/4 teaspoon salt

1. Preheat the oven to 425. Grease the muffin cups with shortening or butter. Put the muffin pan in the oven to heat. Melt 1 tablespoon of butter in the small saucepan over low heat. While the butter melts, crack the eggs into the small mixing bowl. Use the fork to beat the eggs until they are light yellow. Add the milk and melted butter to the eggs. Beat the liquid mixture with the fork until it is mixed well.

2. Stir the flour and salt together in the medium mixing bowl.  Slowly stir the liquid mixture into the flour mixture. Stir only until the mixture is blended. Do not overmix. Spoon batter into the muffin pan until each cup is 2/3 full. Bake the breakfast puffs at 425 for 20 minutes. Then turn the heat down to 325 and bake the puffs for 15 minutes. Use a butter knife to loosen the sides of the breakfast puffs and remove them from the muffin cups.

(This is another way to use the Apple Butter)


                                                        Fried Ham and Gravy


1 pound smoked ham slice
1/2 cup cold water
2 tablespoons fresh-brewed coffee

1. Cut ham slice into serving-size pieces. Warm the skillet over medium-low heat. Add the ham pieces and fry them over low heat. Use the fork to turn over the ham pieces several times to brown both sides evenly. Then move the fried ham pieces onto a serving plate. Cover the plate with tinfoil to keep it warm.

2. If there is grease in the frying pan, pour it off into a metal container. Leave the drippings that are stuck to the bottom of the pan. To make the gravy, pour the cold water and coffee over the drippings in the skillet. Turn the heat to medium and stir the gravy mixture constantly. When the gravy begins to boil, turn off the heat and pour the gravy over the meat.

                                                         Dressed Eggs


1/4 cup butter
6 eggs 
1 tablespoon water

1. Preheat the oven to broil. Melt the butter in the skillet or dish over low heat. Don't let it burn! Measure 1 tablespoon of melted butter into a small cup and set it aside. Carefully crack the eggs into the skillet or dish. Try not to break to yolks.  Shake a little salt over the eggs, then add the water. Cover the pan and cook the eggs over low heat until the whites are set, but not hard...about 5 minutes.

2. Remove the lid and pour the tablespoon of butter evenly over the eggs. Move the pan from the stove to the broiler. Cook the eggs under the broiler about 1 minute. Check them for 30 seconds. The yolks should be set on top. Remove the pan from the broiler and sprinkle nutmeg on the eggs.


Wednesday, January 8, 2014

Tolkien's Elves

Here is something that always interests me about Tolkien's Elves.
Each one has a fascinating name.
I hope that you will enjoy!

                                                                 Elven Men from A to Z

Amroth (First King of Lothlorien)
Beleg (Also known as Cuthulion, meaning 'Strongbow')
Celeborn (King of Lothlorien at the time of the War of the Ring. Husband of Galadriel)
Celebrimbor (Creator of the Three Rings)
Cirdan (Oldest living Elf)
Curufin (Father of Celeborn)
Elmo (Brother of Elwe(Thingol) and Olwe)
Elwe (Thingol)
Eol (Dark Elf, ones who did not see the light of the Two Trees)
Ereinion (Gil-galad)
Felagund (Finrod)
Finrod (Felagund)
Gil-galad (Erinion)
Glorfindel ( a lord of Rivendell)
Halmir (Father of Haldir)
Handir (Son of Haldir)
Legolas (Son of Thranduil. One of the Fellowship of the Ring)
Nellas ( One who took Turin in)
Olwe (Brother of Elwe and Elmo)
Oropher ( Father of Thranduil, grandfather of Legolas)
Saeros (Traitor to Turin, by whom was then murdered)
Thingol (Elwe)
Thranduil (King of Mirkwood, father of Legolas and son of Oropher)